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Hawl is the length of time that an individual must possess the wealth that they will pay Zakat on.
In explanations of Zakat, Hawl means a lunar year and therefore, a hawl (lunar year) is approximately 354 days long.
Yes s/he can pay Zakat, but they would need to factor in any expenditures or liabilities when calculating how much they would need to pay.
Yes, but please discuss this further with a Scholar.
Yes, you need to include it in your calculation.
This depends on the nature of the fund. We would suggest you consult a scholar about this as the issue of pension schemes can be quite complex.
It sounds as if the mentioned fund would count as a Waqf. The general rule is that a Waqf is not liable for Zakat. As long as there is no personal ownership, or nobody is personally benefiting from this fund, and also depending on the nature of the fund, Zakat may/may not be liable. However, you would need to check this with a scholar.
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